Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 138.687
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

RESUMO

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , China , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Bioact Mater ; 20: 449-462, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35765468

RESUMO

The recent remarkable success and safety of mRNA lipid nanoparticle technology for producing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines has stimulated intensive efforts to expand nanoparticle strategies to treat various diseases. Numerous synthetic nanoparticles have been developed for pharmaceutical delivery and cancer treatment. However, only a limited number of nanotherapies have enter clinical trials or are clinically approved. Systemically administered nanotherapies are likely to be sequestered by host mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), resulting in suboptimal pharmacokinetics and insufficient drug concentrations in tumors. Bioinspired drug-delivery formulations have emerged as an alternative approach to evade the MPS and show potential to improve drug therapeutic efficacy. Here we developed a biodegradable polymer-conjugated camptothecin prodrug encapsulated in the plasma membrane of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Polymer conjugation revived the parent camptothecin agent (e.g., 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin), enabling lipid nanoparticle encapsulation. Furthermore, macrophage membrane cloaking transformed the nonadhesive lipid nanoparticles into bioadhesive nanocamptothecin, increasing the cellular uptake and tumor-tropic effects of this biomimetic therapy. When tested in a preclinical murine model of breast cancer, macrophage-camouflaged nanocamptothecin exhibited a higher level of tumor accumulation than uncoated nanoparticles. Furthermore, intravenous administration of the therapy effectively suppressed tumor growth and the metastatic burden without causing systematic toxicity. Our study describes a combinatorial strategy that uses polymeric prodrug design and cell membrane cloaking to achieve therapeutics with high efficacy and low toxicity. This approach might also be generally applicable to formulate other therapeutic candidates that are not compatible or miscible with biomimetic delivery carriers.

3.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 569-580, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574062

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is influencing global health. Moreover, there is a major threat of future coronaviruses affecting the entire world in a similar, or even more dreadful, manner. Therefore, effective and biocompatible therapeutic options against coronaviruses are urgently needed. To address this challenge, medical specialists require a well-informed and safe approach to treating human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Herein, an environmental friendly approach for viral inactivation, based on plasma technology, was considered. A microwave plasma system was employed for the generation of the high amount of gaseous nitric oxide to prepare nitric oxide enriched plasma-activated water (NO-PAW), the effects of which on coronaviruses, have not been reported to date. To determine these effects, alpha-HCoV-229E was used in an experimental model. We found that NO-PAW treatment effectively inhibited coronavirus infection in host lung cells, visualized by evaluating the cytopathic effect and expression level of spike proteins. Interestingly, NO-PAW showed minimal toxicity towards lung host cells, suggesting its potential for therapeutic application. Moreover, this new approach resulted in viral inactivation and greatly improved the gene levels involved in host antiviral responses. Together, our findings provide evidence of an initiation point for further progress toward the clinical development of antiviral treatments, including such coronaviruses.

4.
Neural Regen Res ; 18(2): 284-288, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900404

RESUMO

In the last two years, a new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection has spread worldwide leading to the death of millions. Vaccination represents the key factor in the global strategy against this pandemic, but it also poses several problems, especially for vulnerable people such as patients with multiple sclerosis. In this review, we have briefly summarized the main findings of the safety, efficacy, and acceptability of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination for multiple sclerosis patients. Although the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines has progressively increased in the last year, a small but significant part of patients with multiple sclerosis still has relevant concerns about vaccination that make them hesitant about receiving the COVID-19 vaccine. Overall, available data suggest that the COVID-19 vaccination is safe and effective in multiple sclerosis patients, even though some pharmacological treatments such as anti-CD20 therapies or sphingosine l-phosphate receptor modulators can reduce the immune response to vaccination. Accordingly, COVID-19 vaccination should be strongly recommended for people with multiple sclerosis and, in patients treated with anti-CD20 therapies and sphingosine l-phosphate receptor modulators, and clinicians should evaluate the appropriate timing for vaccine administration. Further studies are necessary to understand the role of cellular immunity in COVID-19 vaccination and the possible usefulness of booster jabs. On the other hand, it is mandatory to learn more about the reasons why people refuse vaccination. This would help to design a more effective communication campaign aimed at increasing vaccination coverage among vulnerable people.

5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5241, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347208

RESUMO

Serosurveillance helps establish reopening guidelines and determine the immunity levels in different populations to reach herd immunity. Then, there is an urgent need to estimate seroprevalence population wide. In Mexico, information about COVID-19 cases and related deaths is scarce. Also, there is no official serosurveillance, limiting our knowledge of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we report the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 522,690 unvaccinated people from July 5th to December 31st, 2020. The overall seroprevalence was 32.8% and highest in adults aged 30-39 years (38.5%) than people under 20 years (33.0%) or older (28.9%). Moreover, in a cohort of 1655 individuals confirmed COVID-19 by PCR, we found that symptomatic people (HR = 2.56) increased seroconversion than presymptomatic. Also, we identified that the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19 that could predict seroconversion were anosmia and ageusia (HR = 1.70), fever, myalgia/arthralgia, and cough (HR = 1.75). Finally, we found that obese people had lower seroconversion (HR = 0.53) than healthy people, but the opposite happens in diabetic people (HR = 1.39). These findings reveal that around one-third of Mexican outpatients had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before vaccination. Also, some symptoms improve empirically COVID-19 diagnosis and seroconversion. This information could help fine-tune vaccination schemes and the reopening and back-to-work algorithms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Soroconversão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
6.
Artif Organs ; 46(4): 688-696, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) support is increasingly used in the management of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the clinical decision-making to initiate V-V ECMO for severe COVID-19 still remains unclear. In order to determine the optimal timing and patient selection, we investigated the outcomes of both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients undergoing V-V ECMO support. METHODS: Overall, 138 patients were included in this study. Patients were stratified into two cohorts: those with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS. RESULTS: The survival in patients with COVID-19 was statistically similar to non-COVID-19 patients (p = .16). However, the COVID-19 group demonstrated higher rates of bleeding (p = .03) and thrombotic complications (p < .001). The duration of V-V ECMO support was longer in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients (29.0 ± 27.5 vs 15.9 ± 19.6 days, p < .01). Most notably, in contrast to the non-COVID-19 group, we found that COVID-19 patients who had been on a ventilator for longer than 7 days prior to ECMO had 100% mortality without a lung transplant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that COVID-19-associated ARDS was not associated with a higher post-ECMO mortality than non-COVID-19-associated ARDS patients, despite longer duration of extracorporeal support. Early initiation of V-V ECMO is important for improved ECMO outcomes in COVID-19 ARDS patients. Since late initiation of ECMO was associated with extremely high mortality related to lack of pulmonary recovery, it should be used judiciously or as a bridge to lung transplantation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(4): 269-273, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941446

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented time for the management of colorectal cancer, with uncertainty as to cancer-specific risks and the circumventing of gold standard oncological strategies. Our study aimed to acquire a snapshot of the practice of multidisciplinary team (MDT) management and variability in response to rapidly emerging guidelines. METHODS: The survey was disseminated to 150 colorectal cancer MDTs across England and Wales taken from the National Bowel Cancer Audit data set between 15 April and 30 June 2020 for completion by colorectal surgeons. RESULTS: Sixty-seven MDTs responded to the survey. Fifty-seven centres reported that they continued to perform colorectal cancer resections during the initial lockdown period. Fifty centres (74.6%) introduced routine preoperative COVID-19 testing and 50 (74.6%) employed full personal protective equipment for elective cases. Laparoscopic resections were continued by 25 centres (42.1%), whereas 28 (48.3%) changed to an open approach. Forty-nine (79.0%) centres reported experiencing patient-led surgical cancellations in 0-25% of their listings. If surgery was delayed significantly then 24 centres (38.7%) employed alternative neoadjuvant therapy, with short-course radiotherapy being their preferred adjunct of choice for rectal cancer. Just over 50% of the MDTs stated that they were uncomfortable or very uncomfortable with their management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates variability in the MDT management of colorectal cancer during the initial COVID-19 lockdown, incorporating adaptive patient behaviour and initially limited data on oncological safety profiles leading to challenging decision-making.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Retais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste para COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
9.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(5): 730-741, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193461

RESUMO

Background: Rates of cannabis use appear to be highest among emerging adults (EA). Evidence suggests that cannabis smoking, as well as alternate methods of cannabis use (e.g., vaping, edibles) have become a prevalent mode of consumption among this population. Substance use or misuse peaks during emerging adulthood and may be influenced by extreme economic, social and community developments, such as policy changes, public health concerns, and significant global events such as pandemics. For instance, it is highly likely that cannabis consumption trends among at-risk populations were influenced by the legalization of recreational cannabis in Canada, the declaration of the "e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury" or "EVALI" outbreak, and the "COVID-19" pandemic. ObjectivesWe aimed to examine self-reported changes in frequency of cannabis use among EA in Canada (N = 312): pre-legalization, post-legalization; pre-EVALI, post-EVALI; pre-COVID-19, since-COVID-19. ResultsThere was a gradual increase in average frequency of smoking and vaping cannabis across the six different time intervals from the pre-legalization period (2018) to the COVID-19 pandemic period (2020). Males reported higher frequencies of cannabis smoking and vaping compared to females. ConclusionsDespite health concerns and expectations that EVALI and COVID-19 events would lead to decreased consumption, our results suggest an average increase in smoking and vaping cannabis, although the most notable increase was after legalization. There are important sex differences in behavioral factors of cannabis use in EA, though it appears that the "gender-gap" in cannabis consumption is closing. These findings may facilitate the development of intervention programs for policy measures to address cannabis-attributable outcomes in the face of contextual factors that promote use, such as public emergencies or changes in policy landscapes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Políticas , Saúde Pública
10.
Front Nutr ; 9: 853576, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35369105

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection on the metataxonomic profile and its evolution during the first month of lactation. Methods: Milk samples from 37 women with full-term pregnancies and mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and from 63 controls, collected in the first and fifth postpartum weeks, have been analyzed. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) both in cases and controls. After DNA extraction, the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the gene 16S rRNA was amplified and sequenced using the MiSeq system of Illumina. Data were submitted for statistical and bioinformatics analyses after quality control. Results: All the 1st week and 5th week postpartum milk samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Alpha diversity showed no differences between milk samples from the study and control group, and this condition was maintained along the observation time. Analysis of the beta-diversity also indicated that the study and control groups did not show distinct bacterial profiles. Staphyloccus and Streptococcus were the most abundant genera and the only ones that were detected in all the milk samples provided. Disease state (symptomatic or asymptomatic infection) did not affect the metataxonomic profile in breast milk. Conclusion: These results support that in the non-severe SARS-CoV-2 pregnant woman infection the structure of the bacterial population is preserved and does not negatively impact on the human milk microbiota.

11.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 25: 205-214, 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35308783

RESUMO

Current RNA vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are limited by instability of both the RNA and the lipid nanoparticle delivery system, requiring storage at -20°C or -70°C and compromising universally accessible vaccine distribution. This study demonstrates the thermostability and adaptability of a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) delivery system for RNA vaccines that has the potential to address these concerns. Liquid NLC alone is stable at refrigerated temperatures for ≥1 year, enabling stockpiling and rapid deployment by point-of-care mixing with any vaccine RNA. Alternatively, NLC complexed with RNA may be readily lyophilized and stored at room temperature for ≥8 months or refrigerated temperature for ≥21 months while still retaining the ability to express protein in vivo. The thermostability of this NLC/RNA vaccine delivery platform could significantly improve distribution of current and future pandemic response vaccines, particularly in low-resource settings.

12.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 833865, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35370861

RESUMO

Objective: This paper used meta-regression to analyze the heterogenous factors contributing to the prevalence rate of mental health symptoms of the general and frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) in China under the COVID-19 crisis. Method: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Medrxiv and pooled data using random-effects meta-analyses to estimate the prevalence rates, and ran meta-regression to tease out the key sources of the heterogeneity. Results: The meta-regression results uncovered several predictors of the heterogeneity in prevalence rates among published studies, including severity (e.g., above severe vs. above moderate, p < 0.01; above moderate vs. above mild, p < 0.01), type of mental symptoms (PTSD vs. anxiety, p = 0.04), population (frontline vs. general HCWs, p < 0.01), sampling location (Wuhan vs. Non-Wuhan, p = 0.04), and study quality (p = 0.04). Conclusion: The meta-regression findings provide evidence on the factors contributing to the prevalence rate of mental health symptoms of the general and frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) to guide future research and evidence-based medicine in several specific directions. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=220592, identifier: CRD42020220592.

13.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-3, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358188

RESUMO

Na atualidade, fotografar ou gravar o instante da imunização contra a Covid-19 se tornou rotina compartilhada nas redes sociais. Essa exposição instigou a observação de uma questão relevante: a técnica de aplicação está correta? Com a veiculação de imagens, é possível visualizar as vacinas sendo administradas em diferentes áreas do músculo deltoide, o que pode acarretar efeitos adversos. A otimização da qualificação técnica e pedagógica dos profissionais que elaboram e ministram as capacitações, bem como o envolvimento efetivo dos vacinadores nos treinamentos para injeção intramuscular é uma necessidade constante para evitar mais danos à saúde da população


Currently, photographing or recording the instant of immunization against Covid-19 has become a shared routine on social networks. This exposition prompted the observation of a relevant question: is the application technique correct? With the transmission of images, it is possible to visualize the vaccines being administered in different areas of the deltoid muscle, which can cause adverse effects. The optimization of the technical and pedagogical qualification of the professionals who design and deliver the training, as well as the effective involvement of vaccinators in training for intramuscular injection, is a constant need to avoid further damage to the health of the population


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Imunização , Otimização de Processos , Músculo Deltoide , Injeções
14.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 30: e65662, jan. -dez. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372342

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar fatores associados à procura por pronto atendimento entre gestantes e puérperas com infecção pela COVID-19. Métodos: estudo transversal, com coleta de dados realizada entre agosto de 2021 e janeiro de 2022, baseado nas respostas de 258 mulheres que estiveram gestantes ou pariram durante a pandemia, após aprovação do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da instituição. Resultados: entre as entrevistadas, 27,1% tiveram COVID-19, sendo mais comumente relatados os sintomas perda de olfato e fadiga. A prevalência de procura por pronto atendimento foi de 30,4%, explicada por casos de maior gravidade, em que houve necessidade de internação (p < 0,001); portadoras de asma (p <0,001) e de hipertensão crônica (p <0,001). Conclusão: o Pronto atendimento foi o local de maior procura na presença dos sintomas, principalmente nos casos de maior gravidade e comorbidades, embora os resultados sejam divergentes das orientações constantes nos protocolos nacionais e internacionais voltados para assistência à população obstétrica.


Objective: to identify factors associated with demand for emergency health services from pregnant/puerperal women with COVID-19. Method: in this cross-sectional study, data were collected between August 2021 and January 2022 from the responses of 258 women who were pregnant or gave birth during the pandemic, after research ethics committee approval. Results: 27.1% of respondents had COVID-19, with loss of smell and fatigue being the most commonly reported symptoms. The highest prevalence of seeking emergency hospital care (30.4%) was accounted for by the more serious cases, who sought emergency care needing hospitalization (p < 0.001), patients with asthma (p < 0.001) and chronic hypertension (p < 0.001). Conclusion: the emergency facility was the service most accessed in the presence of symptoms, especially in cases of greater severity and comorbidities, although the results are at variance with the guidelines contained in national and international protocols on care for the obstetric population.


Objetivo: identificar los factores asociados a la búsqueda de servicios médicos de urgencia por embarazadas y puérperas con infección por COVID-19. Método: estudio transversal, cuya recolección de datos tuvo lugar entre agosto de 2021 y enero de 2022, a partir de las respuestas de 258 mujeres que estuvieron embarazadas o dieron a luz durante la pandemia, previa aprobación del Comité de Ética en Investigación de la Institución. Resultados: entre las encuestadas, el 27,1% tuvo COVID-19, siendo más comunes los síntomas como pérdida del olfato y cansancio. La prevalencia de búsqueda de atención en urgencias fue del 30,4%, explicada por casos de mayor gravedad, en los que hubo necesidad de hospitalización (p < 0,001); asma (p <0,001) e hipertensión crónica (p <0,001). Conclusión: el Servicio de Urgencias fue el lugar más buscado ante la presencia de síntomas, especialmente en los casos de mayor gravedad y comorbilidades, aunque los resultados sean divergentes de las directrices contenidas em los protocolos nacionales e internacionales dirigidos a la atención de la población obstétrica.

15.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-12, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378476

RESUMO

Objective: Analyze lysosomotropic agents and their action on COVID-19 targets using the molecular docking technique. Methods: Molecular docking analyses of these lysosomotropic agents were performed, namely of fluoxetine, imipramine, chloroquine, verapamil, tamoxifen, amitriptyline, and chlorpromazine against important targets for the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Results: The results revealed that the inhibitors bind to distinct regions of Mpro COVID-19, with variations in RMSD values from 1.325 to 1.962 Å and binding free energy of -5.2 to -4.3 kcal/mol. Furthermore, the analysis of the second target showed that all inhibitors bonded at the same site as the enzyme, and the interaction resulted in an RMSD variation of 0.735 to 1.562 Å and binding free energy ranging from -6.0 to -8.7 kcal/mol. Conclusion: Therefore, this study allows proposing the use of these lysosomotropic compounds. However, these computer simulations are just an initial step toward conceiving new projects for the development of antiviral molecules.


Objetivo: aAnalisar agentes lisossomotrópicos e sua ação em alvos de COVID-19 usando a técnica de docking molecular. Métodos: Foram realizadas análises de docagem molecular destes agentes lisossomotrópicos, nomeadamente de fluoxetina, imipramina, cloroquina, verapamil, tamoxifeno, amitriptilina e clorpromazina contra alvos importantes para a patogenia do SARS-CoV-2. Resultados: Os resultados revelaram que os inibidores se ligam a regiões distintas do Mpro COVID-19, com variações nos valores de RMSD de 1.325 a 1.962 Å e energia livre de ligação de -5,2 a -4,3 kcal/mol. Além disso, a análise do segundo alvo mostrou que todos os inibidores se ligaram no mesmo sítio da enzima, e a interação resultante em uma variação de RMSD de 0,735 a 1.562 Å e energia livre de ligação variando de -6,0 a -8,7 kcal/mol. Conclusão: Portanto, este estudo permite propor o uso desses compostos lisossomotrópicos. No entanto, essas simulações em computador são apenas um passo inicial para a concepção de novos projetos para o desenvolvimento de moléculas antivirais.


Assuntos
SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Antivirais , Cloroquina , Programas de Rastreamento , Fluoxetina , Amitriptilina , Imipramina
16.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Online) ; 43(3): 24-32, set.-dez. 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1381063

RESUMO

O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar quais EPIs foram utilizados pelos cirurgiões-dentistas e a relação destes EPIs com a presença de dores osteomusculares em virtude do novo estilo de vida profissional ocasionado pelo SARS-CoV-2. Foram aplicados dois questionários com a temática por intermédio da plataforma Google Forms®. Os participantes da pesquisa (n= 110) tiveram acesso aos questionários via e-mail e através das redes sociais. A análise de dados foi realizada por meio de teste qui-quadrado com nível de confiança de 95%. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram predomínio de indivíduos do sexo masculino, com idade entre 21 a 29 anos, solteiros, entre 1 a 10 anos de formado, possuindo renda mensal de 1 a 5 salários-mínimos, especialistas, atuando em consultório particular, com atualizações para atendimento durante o período de pandemia. Observou-se relação estatisticamente significativa (p<0,05) na utilização de gorro durante os atendimentos odontológicos para os profissionais que realizaram atualizações para atendimento durante o período de pandemia da COVID-19. Em relação aos demais EPIs não houve relação estatisticamente significativa (p>0,05). No que diz respeito às dores osteomusculares, observou-se relação estatisticamente significativa (p<0,05) apenas entre a utilização de avental descartável e o relato de dores na região do pescoço, ombro e costas. Ademais, não foi possível observar relação estatisticamente significativa (p>0,05) entre EPIs e dores osteomusculares. Pôde-se concluir que uma grande parcela dos cirurgiões-dentistas adotou medidas de proteção contra o novo Coronavírus (SARS-CoV-2), utilizando os EPIs recomendados para executar atendimento durante o período pandêmico. Com relação às dores osteomusculares, os participantes relataram dor com ou sem a utilização de EPIs, porém ao utilizarem avental descartável, houve predominância de sintomatologia na região do pescoço, ombros e coluna(AU)


The aim of this study was to identify which PPE was used by Dental Surgeons and the relationship of this PPE with the presence of musculoskeletal pain due to the new professional lifestyle caused by SARS-CoV-2. Two questionnaires with the theme were applied through the Google Forms® platform. Research participants (n = 110) had access to the questionnaires via e-mail and through social networks. Data analysis was performed using a chi-square test with a 95% confidence level. The results showed a predominance of male individuals, aged between 21 and 29 years old, single, between 1 and 10 years since graduation, having a monthly income of 1 to 5 minimum wages, specialists, working in private practice, with updates for care during the pandemic period. There was a statistically significant relationship (p<0.05) in the use of a cap during dental care for professionals who updated for care during the COVID-19 pandemic period. About the other PPE there was no statistically significant relationship (p>0.05). Regarding musculoskeletal pain, there was a statistically significant relationship (p<0.05) only between the use of a disposable apron and the report of pain in the neck, shoulder, and back. Furthermore, it was not possible to observe a statistically significant relationship (p>0.05) between PPE and musculoskeletal pain. It was concluded that a large portion of dentists adopted protective measures against the new Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), using the recommended PPE to perform care during the pandemic period. Regarding musculoskeletal pain, participants reported pain with or without the use of PPE, however, when using a disposable apron, there was a predominance of symptoms in the neck, shoulders, and back(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Odontólogos , Dor Musculoesquelética , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , COVID-19 , Ombro , Riscos Ocupacionais , Saúde do Trabalhador , SARS-CoV-2 , Ergonomia
17.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Online) ; 43(3): 33-39, set.-dez. 2022. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1381093

RESUMO

O presente estudo aborda os protocolos odontológicos instituídos na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva COVID de um Hospital do Extremo Sul Catarinense. A cavidade oral, considerada uma abertura para a entrada de microrganismos, possui características favoráveis ao seu crescimento, com temperatura e umidade ideais para sua sobrevivência em longo prazo. A odontologia, por manipular diretamente mucosa oral, fica exposta e vulnerável ao contágio do COVID-19, assim como a equipe multiprofissional que manipula o paciente nas diversas áreas de atenção à saúde, no ambiente hospitalar. A COVID-19 é uma infecção respiratória aguda causada pelo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2, potencialmente grave, de elevada transmissibilidade e de distribuição global. A maioria das pessoas (cerca de 80%) se recupera da doença sem precisar de tratamento hospitalar. Uma em cada seis pessoas infectadas por COVID-19 fica gravemente doente e desenvolve dificuldade de respirar. As pessoas idosas e as que têm outras condições de saúde, como pressão alta, problemas cardíacos e do pulmão, diabetes ou câncer, têm maior risco de ficarem gravemente doentes. No entanto, qualquer pessoa pode pegar a COVID-19 e ficar gravemente doente. Constatou-se que a aplicação de protocolos odontológicos na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva apresenta uma série de vantagens em relação à prevenção da contaminação dos profissionais de saúde, à manutenção da saúde bucal do paciente, aos benefícios gerais para a saúde, à prevenção e ao tratamento de infecções oportunistas, que podem reduzir o tempo de internação do paciente, pois infecção generalizada e pneumonia são doenças nosocomiais também causadas por distúrbios na microbiota oral. Os resultados mostraram que não há cirurgiões dentistas atuando na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, os protocolos não são específicos para área de odontologia e os equipamentos de proteção individuais são utilizados, porém, não em todos atendimentos(AU)


The present study addresses the dental protocols established in the COVID Intensive Care Unit of a Hospital in Extremo Sul Santa Catarina. The oral cavity, considered an opening for the entry of microorganisms, has characteristics favorable to its growth, with ideal temperature and humidity for its long-term survival. Dentistry, by directly manipulating the oral mucosa, is exposed and vulnerable to COVID-19 contagion, as well as the multidisciplinary team that handles the patient in the different areas of health care, in the hospital environment. COVID-19 is a potentially serious acute respiratory infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, with high transmissibility and global distribution. Most people (about 80%) recover from the disease without needing hospital treatment. One in six people infected with COVID-19 becomes seriously ill and develops difficulty breathing. Elderly people and those with other health conditions, such as high blood pressure, heart and lung problems, diabetes or cancer, are at increased risk of becoming seriously ill. However, anyone can take COVID-19 and become seriously ill. It was found that the application of dental protocols in the Intensive Care Unit has a number of advantages in relation to the prevention of contamination of health professionals, the maintenance of the patient's oral health, the general benefits for health, prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, which can reduce the patient's hospital stay, as generalized infection and pneumonia are nosocomial diseases also caused by disorders in the oral microbiota. The results showed that there are no dentists working in the Intensive Care Unit, the protocols are not specific to the field of dentistry and individual protective equipment is used, however, not in all cases(AU)


Assuntos
Odontólogos , COVID-19 , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Saúde Bucal , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Tempo de Internação , Mucosa Bucal
18.
Rev. flum. odontol ; 3(59): 22-36, set.-dez. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380523

RESUMO

O objetivo desse estudo foi relatar as evidências disponíveis sobre o papel da saliva no diagnóstico da Covid-19. Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa da literatura de cunho qualitativo com buscas realizadas a partir das bases de dados eletrônicas PubMed, Google Acadêmico e Scielo, nos idiomas português e inglês utilizando os termos "Covid-19", "Diagnóstico" e "Saliva". Foi observado a utilização da saliva com a finalidade de se monitorar o estado de saúde e da doença de uma pessoa cujo objetivo tem se tornado extremamente desejável quanto à promoção da saúde e à pesquisa de cuidados em saúde. Nesse sentido, amostras de saliva podem ser usadas no diagnóstico da Covid-19. Um obstáculo crítico para o diagnóstico salivar pode ser a validação de amplo espectro em pacientes com Covid-19 durante o período de incubação, a fase de resposta viral e a fase inflamatória do hospedeiro de indivíduos assintomáticos e sintomáticos. Conclui-se que a saliva pode ter aplicações potenciais no contexto da Covid-19, mas, são necessários mais estudos para investigar o potencial diagnóstico da Covid-19 na saliva e seu impacto na transmissão desse vírus.


The aim of this study was to review the available evidence on the role of saliva in the diagnosis of Covid-19. This is a narrative review of the literature of a qualitative nature whose search was carried out from the digital databases PubMed, Academic Google and Scielo, in Portuguese and English, using the terms "Covid-19", "Diagnosis" and "Saliva". It was observed that the use of saliva in order to monitor a person's state of health and illness it became an objective extremely desirable in terms of health promotion and health care research. In this sense, saliva samples can be used in the diagnosis of Covid-19. A critical obstacle for salivary diagnosis may be broad-spectrum validation in patients with Covid-19 during the incubation period, the viral response phase, and the host inflammatory phase in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. It is concluded that saliva may have potential applications in the context of Covid-19, but further studies are needed to investigate the diagnostic potential of Covid-19 in saliva and its impact on the transmission of this virus.

19.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22278223

RESUMO

BackgroundObservational studies have reported an association between use of eye protection and reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and other respiratory viruses, but as for most non-pharmaceutical interventions for infection control, no randomized trials have been conducted. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of recommending the use of glasses in public as protection against being infected with SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses. Methods and findingsThis was a pragmatic, randomized, trial in Norway from 2 February to 24 April 2022 where all adult members of the public who did not regularly wear glasses, had no symptoms of COVID-19 and no COVID-19 in the last 6 weeks, were eligible. Participants randomized to the intervention group were asked to wear glasses (e.g. sunglasses) for 2 weeks when close to others in public spaces. The primary outcome was positive COVID-19 test result notified to the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS). Secondary outcomes included positive COVID-19 test result based on self-report and episode of respiratory infection based on self-report of symptoms. We randomized 3717 participants. All were identified and followed up in the registries and 87% responded to the end of study-questionnaire. The proportions with a notified positive COVID-19 test in the national registry were 3.7% in the intervention group (68/1852) and 3.5% (65/1865) in the control group (95% CI for risk difference -1.0% to 1.4%; relative risk 1.10, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.50). The proportions with a positive COVID-19 test based on self-report were 9.6% and 11.5% (95% CI for risk difference -3.9% to 0.1%; relative risk 0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00). The risk of respiratory infections based on self-reported symptoms was lower in the intervention group (31% vs. 34%; 95% CI for risk difference -3.3% to -0.3%; relative risk 0.90, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.99). ConclusionsOur results indicate that asking people to wear glasses may protect the public against respiratory infections, but the findings are not certain, and the study needs replication. Although the evidence is uncertain, and the effect probably modest at best, wearing glasses may be worth considering as one component in the infection control toolbox since it is a simple, low burden, and low-cost intervention, with few negative consequences. Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05217797 FundingThe costs of running the trial were covered by the Centre for Epidemic Interventions Research (CEIR), Norwegian Institute of Public Health. The authors received no specific funding for this work

20.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22278064

RESUMO

Covid-19 mRNA vaccines have been shown to be associated with a short-term increased risk of myocarditis, with the highest risk observed after the second dose compared to the first. The extent of the risk associated with more distant booster doses is less clear. Here, we aimed to assess the relation between dosing interval and the risk of myocarditis, for both the two-dose primary series and the third dose (first booster). Extending our previous matched case-control study, we included 4 890 cases of myocarditis aged 12 or more and 48 900 controls up to January 31, 2022. We found that the risk of myocarditis remained elevated after the booster dose and that longer intervals between each consecutive dose (including booster doses) may decrease the occurrence of vaccine-associated myocarditis.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...